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Translate this page from English Print Page Change Text Size: It provides exactly what its title implies: The paper consists of a preface and five main sections.
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The preface delineates the problem of lower order learning, summarizes the state of research into critical thinking and educational reform, and explains the five-part structure of the paper. The first main section of the paper states and explicates 21 criteria for higher order thinking assessment.
In making this case, Paul and Nosich spell out the dangers of a non-substantive concept of critical thinking.
The third section of the paper spells out four domains of critical thinking: The fourth section of the paper makes substantive recommendations regarding how to assess the various domains of critical thinking, the test strategies that may be used, the value of the proposed strategy for the reform of education, and the suggested implementation of the proposal.
It should concentrate on thinking skills that can be employed with maximum flexibility, in a wide variety of subjects, situations, contexts, and educational levels. It should account for both the important differences among subjects and the skills, processes, and affective dispositions that are crucial to all the subjects.
It should focus on fundamental, enduring forms of intellectual ability that are both fitted to the accelerating pace of change and deeply embedded in the history of the advancement of the disciplines. It should readily lead to the improvement of instruction.
It should make clear the inter-connectedness of our knowledge and abilities, and why expertise in one area cannot be divorced either from findings in other areas or from a sensitivity to the need for interdisciplinary integration.
It should assess those versatile and fundamental skills that are essential to being a responsible, decision-making member of the work-place.
It should be based on clear concepts and have well-thought-out, rationally articulated goals, criteria, and standards.
It should account for the integration of communication skills, problem-solving, and critical thinking, and it should assess all of them without compromising essential features of any of them. It should respect cultural diversity by focusing on the common-core skills, abilities, and traits useful in all cultures.
It should assess the skills, abilities, and attitudes that are central to making sound decisions and acting on them in the context of learning to understand our rights and responsibilities as citizens, as well-informed and thinking consumers, and as participants in a symbiotic world economy.
It should avoid any reductionism that allows a multi-faceted, theoretically complex, and authentically usable body of abilities and dispositions to be assessed by means of oversimplified parts that do not adequately reflect the whole.
It should enable educators to see what kinds of skills are basic for the future. It should be of a kind that will assess valuable skills applied to genuine problems as seen by a large body of the populace, both inside and outside of the educational community.
It should include items that assess both the skills of thoughtfully choosing the most reasonable answer to a problem from among a pre-selected set and the skills of formulating the problem itself and of making the initial selection of relevant alternatives.
It should contain items that, as much as possible, are examples of the real-life problems and issues that people will have to think out and act upon.
It should be affordable. It should enable school districts and educators to assess the gains they are making in teaching higher order thinking. It should provide for a measure of achievement against national standards. Most of the language we shall use is drawn from draft statements of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking Instruction.
The National Council has been established precisely to articulate standards in critical thinking by 50 key leaders in critical thinking research and leading educators.
It is in the process of establishing regional offices and setting up 75 research-based committees to articulate the state of research in the field. Though the definition as well as the other draft statements of the Council are subject to modification and refinement, the basic idea is one that is common to practitioners and researchers in critical thinking.
These include such abilities as clarifying issues, transferring insights into new contexts, analyzing arguments, questioning deeply, developing criteria for evaluation, assessing solutions, refining generalizations, and evaluating the credibility of sources of information.
Among the abilities are included also the central forms of communication: Each of them is a large-scaled mode of thinking which is successful to the extent that it is informed, disciplined, and guided by critical thought and reflection.
Paraphrased from National Council Draft Statement. Critical thinking — in being responsive to variable subject areas, issues, and purposes — is incorporated in a family of interrelated modes of thinking, among them: In our view, a rich, substantive concept of critical thinking, and it alone, provides an intelligible and workable means of meeting all 21 criteria.Exemption 4.
Exemption 4 of the FOIA protects "trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person [that is] privileged or confidential.".
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