Chapter 6 Writing about Readers: Apply the reader-response methodology to works of literature. Engage in the writing process of a peer writer, including peer review. Review and evaluate a variety of reader-response papers by peer writers.
Normally, when writing an essay at university you will be expected to use only academic sources. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to determine whether an external source is academic or not.
The chocolate essay uses the APA style of referencing, which is easy to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, as the format is different: In that case the information comes before the author. Such citations are called information-centred citations. When the focus is more on who is saying it then the citation is written like this: Such citations are called author-centred citations.
Try and achieve a balance between both types of in text-references in your essay writing. Reference list In the APA style of referencing, the reference list has certain conventions that you must also follow. Here are some examples from the chocolate essay: Include your in-text citations and reference list as part of your first draft.
Redrafting your essay Leave yourself enough time to look at your essay more than once. For a word essay you need at least three days to redraft your essay.
Always save each draft as a separate file; then you can see how your essay develops and improves. Here are the sorts of questions you should ask yourself: You can also look at other checklists such as this one on editing your own work.
Now compare the above with the final draft: Since Spanish explorers brought back chocolate from the new world, chocolate consumption has become a worldwide phenomenon. At first, chocolate, a derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form.
The realities of chocolate are more down to earth; a number of these realities will be addressed in this essay. Chocolate has chemical properties that can influence mood and there is possible evidence for some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health.
Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat by the argument that, in some instances, chocolate can be viewed as a drug rather than a food. Moreover, there is the possibility of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity.
Take your time and be careful when redrafting—it will be worth it! How do you write in an academic way? Imagine your essay as a kind of story. You are the principal storyteller, the internal voice of the writer, leading the reader through to your conclusion.
During the story, there are different voices that appear from time to time. These are the external voices citations that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for what you are saying and sometimes even giving an alternative perspective. The external voices can be divided into two categories in your essay: The reader needs to know at all times whose voice they are hearing.
Is it your internal voice or the external voice of other authors?
You might wonder how you can include your own voice and still sound academic when you are writing about a subject area in which you have little or no knowledge.
The internal voice of the writer is colour-coded in yellow; the indirect external voices of other authors i. This is a balanced paragraph. The writer sets the scene at the beginning of the topic sentence and also links together all of the sentences, using their own voice to lead into content which is provided by the external voices.
That is something your lecturers do not want to see. When you are drafting your paragraphs, use a colour-coding system like the one used here. It will help you ensure your academic voice is clear! When you get more confident in using external sources, you will gradually expand the language of your critical internal voice.
The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides examples of some more expressions to use when assessing external sources. Editing focuses on the big picture elements such as overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and whether the question has been answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the details of your essay, such as formatting, grammar and punctuation.After quickly writing the first draft, learners edit for clarity, conciseness, accuracy, visual design, and tone. All who communicate in writing We tailor the program to your learners’ specific writing needs, whether for e-mail messages or complex reports and proposals.
Learners use The Six Steps to Reader-Centered Writing® to plan, draft, and edit an on-the-job document. Learners plan their message by: analyzing their audience; brainstorming; creating headlines; sequencing information strategically. After quickly writing the first draft, learners edit for clarity, conciseness, accuracy, visual design, and tone.
This is “Writing about Readers: Applying Reader-Response Theory”, chapter 6 from the book Creating Literary Analysis (v. ). For details on it (including licensing), click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa license.
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"Ode on Melancholy" is the shortest of the spring odes at three stanzas of 10 lines. Originally, the poem contained four stanzas, but the original first stanza was removed before publication in for stylistic reasons.
The poem describes the narrator's opinions on melancholy and is addressed specifically to the reader, unlike the narrative of many of the other odes.