The most significant development in publishing was the growth of the periodical. Summaries The Victorian era was a period of dramatic change that brought England to its highest point of development as a world power. The rapid growth of London, from a population of 2 million when Victoria came to the throne to one of 6. England experienced an enormous increase in wealth, but rapid and unregulated industrialization brought a host of social and economic problems.
The act stipulated that, after the death of the childless Queen Anne the last legitimate Stuart monarch the British monarchy should be Protestant and Hanoverian.
The Hanoverian era continued through four successive Georges and ended with the last representative of the line, William IV, who died in The Jacobites supported the restoration of the Stuarts to the throne. The coming of the Hanoverians to the British throne was not unanimously welcomed. George I spoke no English and was as much concerned, if not more so, with fostering the interests of Hanover as with giving full attention to his role and duties in Britain.
The major opposition to the Hanoverians came from the Jacobites, who supported the restoration of the Stuarts to the throne.
Two main Jacobite rebellions occurred, the first inthe second in Both were marked by poor military organisation, lacklustre leadership and exaggerated hopes of support.
Despite some Jacobite successes in battle, the rebellions were ruthlessly crushed by the British army. Top Political upheaval Britain was governed under a mixed constitution, achieved through the Glorious Revolution of The monarch ruled in conjunction with the two houses of parliament.
All three parties were closely involved in political decisions. Gradually, however, the House of Commons and the prime minister assumed more political control than had been the case under the Stuarts.
Parliament existed under an unreformed system until the Great Reform Act of Thus for virtually all the period from tomembers of the Commons and Lords came from the landed interest. Enough of the existing political system survived to ensure that wealth and land were the basis of power.
They were unpaid as politicians and were elected in open ballots. The franchise was limited to a small minority of Protestant adult males. Westminster and Whitehall dominated the British political stage, though vigorous political debates occurred outside their confines.
Ireland was granted legislative independence inbut the chief executive roles in Dublin were British appointees. Two main parties, the Whigs and Tories, were prominent in politics but there were nearly always over a hundred independent members of parliament who needed to be persuaded on issues and bills.
Radical groups - such as the supporters of John Wilkes in the s; the corresponding societies of the s; and the Hampden clubs founded in - all pressed for parliamentary reform. But it was not until after the Napoleonic Wars that a fully-fledged reform movement emerged with a mass platform.
The repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts and the granting of Catholic emancipation introduced political rights for Protestant dissenters and Roman Catholics. These concessions were followed by the Whig Party introducing, after much struggle, the Great Reform Act.
This revised existing parliamentary constituencies and extended the franchise moderately, but it did not introduce a secret ballot or parliamentary democracy.
Enough of the existing political system survived to ensure that wealth and land were the basis of power until at least the mid-Victorian period. The continued exclusion of the working man from the franchise provided the impetus for Chartism in the later s.
Top Population explosion During the Hanoverian era, Britain experienced considerable demographic growth, the birth of an industrial economy, and extensive social change. The British population doubled in the century afterfrom 7. Most of the growth occurred afterand particularly after the s.
Between andaverage family size reached five or six children per family, the highest rate in any decade in modern British history.
This surge in population was to some degree the result of falling mortality, which itself was partly the result of widespread smallpox inoculation in the early 19th century.
Improved material circumstances in industrialising parts of the nation explain the trend towards earlier and more extensive marriage and larger families.
Britain already had a thriving economy in the early 18th century, with productive agriculture, scientific ingenuity, a strong commercial and middling sector, and extensive manufacturing.
Britain built factories and canals, extended agricultural productivity through parliamentary enclosure, experienced rapid urban growth, manufactured and patented new industrial techniques, achieved a breakthrough in fuel sources for energy and traded extensively along its own coasts and with Ireland, Europe and the wider world.
Industrialisation did not affect all parts of the nation equally. Though industrialisation brought disruption to communities, pollution, booms and slumps and unequal gains, it led in the long term to a better standard of living for most workers. Factory work depended on labour mobility, the installation of new machinery and the allocation of workers to specialised tasks.
Domestic industrial work changed over the generations.John Stuart Mill (—) John Stuart Mill () profoundly influenced the shape of nineteenth century British thought and political discourse.
Mar 29, · During the Victorian era, Britain could claim to be the world's superpower, despite social inequality at home and burgeoning industrial rivals overseas.
How did it happen? 'When Britain really. The Victorian era was a period of dramatic change that brought England to its highest point of development as a world power.
The early Victorian period (–48) saw the opening of Britain’s first railway and its first Reform Parliament, but it was also a time of economic distress. Mar 29, · During the Victorian age, Britain was the world's most powerful nation.
Though not always effortlessly, it was able to maintain a world order which rarely threatened Britain's wider strategic. Taylor Report A new partnership for our schools. No-one wants to talk about these crimes because, for many of us, they are too horrific to believe and the gap from trusted spiritual leader to paedophile is just too difficult for many to traverse.